Prevent Dog Bites in Children

Millions of people every year in the U.S. are victims of dog bites. Sixty percent of these victims are children. Dog bites are one of the most common reason children visit the emergency room, and the majority of the dog bites to children are from dogs the child knows.

Dog safety tips for children

  • Always ask permission from an adult owner before petting an unknown dog.
  • If the owner says you can pet the dog, walk to the side of the dog and face the same direction as the dog. Stand up or squat down if the dog is small. Never bend at the waist. Gently extend your hand with the fingers curled up for the dog to sniff. If the dog backs away, he does not want to be petted. If he doesn’t back away, then open your hand and pet him over the shoulders.
  • Never try to pet a dog through a fence or care window.
  • Never pet a dog that is tied up.
  • Never pet a dog that is eating, or playing with a toy.
  • Never pet a mother dog that is nursing her puppies.
  • If a dog runs up to you, stand like a tree, with your hands at your side. Don’t run. Be quiet. If the dog knocks you down, lie like a log. Don’t move and protect your neck with your hands.

Safety tips for parents

  • Supervise your dog with your children, particularly toddlers. Dogs can behave differently with children than adults.
  • Train your dog. All dogs should attend at least one obedience class.

Source: Minnesota Veterinary Medical Association/University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine

Inappropriate Elimination/Submissive Urination

Housesoiling in adult dogs ranks among the most common complaints of dog owners. Even the most reliably trained dog can have trouble controlling bowel or bladder function during illness or stress. If your dog suddenly loses its house-training manners, take him to your vet immediately to make sure he is not ill. Review recent events that might have made your pet anxious if there is no sign of physical illness.

Dogs may lose desirable habits in response to events that are not immediately obvious to their owners (such as a neighborhood female dog being in heat, arousing tensions in dogs of both senses). There may be changes in the dynamics between your dog and another household pet. Or loss of house-training habits sometimes reflects an owner’s stress because dogs are sensitive to their owners’ moods. Your dog may react to your tensions and withdrawal by reasserting territorial claims with deposits of urine or stool. It may even void in a place that is strongly associated with you (your bed or clothing).

Even if you’re busy, it’s important to keep up your twice-daily walks instead of just letting the dog out in the yard. Spending more quality time together reduces your own stress level and benefits everyone’s sense of well-being. Dogs benefit from structure in their daily routines.

If your dog loses its house-training manners, follow these steps:

  • Prevent accidents by resuming basic house training. Provide frequent opportunities for your dog to eliminate in an appropriate place. Walk it on a leash within a half-hour after each meal (or sooner) and, if possible, every few hours during the day. Reward your dog’s appropriate elimination immediately with abundant praise. Remember that it is not useful to punish a pet for inappropriate elimination. This is especially important when the problem’s underlying cause is psychological or physical stress.
  • Decrease your pet’s desire to return to soiled areas. Odors must be removed because they will attract your pet and maintain objectionable habits long after the initial cause of the misbehavior is gone. Thoroughly disinfect and deodorize the soiled area. Many effective household cleaning productions, such as alternating diluted white vinegar and baking soda, can neutralize or at least dilute the odors that attract your pet to the location. Products containing biological enzymes can be helpful in deodorizing, too. After cleaning, block your pet’s access to the target area with an obstacle such as a piece of furniture. Alternatively, feed your pet at or near this spot or simply place a bowl of water there.

Submissive Urination

Submissive behavior signals a dog’s recognition of its inferior social status toward another dog or a person. Physical clues associated with submission are similar to those displayed by defensive, even fearful animals. These may include ears flattened against the head, head and neck lowered, body arched in a sitting position or crouched low to the ground, and tail held low or between the hind legs. Submissive behavior during greeting may be accompanied by a dribbling of urine. This submissive urination is seen particularly in young dogs and most often in young females. It may persist into adulthood, but it usually resolves as urinary sphincters mature and the pup gains confidence in a stable human family.


  • The key to treating submissive urination is to keep greetings brief and calm. Excited entrances and exits may worsen the problem. Everyone entering or leaving your home, including you, should be calm and controlled.
  • Avoid prolonged direct eye contact when greeting the dog so that it does not feel threatened.
  • Do not pet the dog on its head or back during greeting. This may trigger submissive patterns, including urination, because petting is a subtle form of asserting dominance over the dog. Petting should be avoided during submissive urination so as to avoid unintentionally encourage that behavior.
  • Walk your dog at regular and frequent intervals so that its bladder does not become too full.
  • Crouch or kneel on the floor so that you present a less intimidating figure. Standing over a dog, particularly when it lacks social confidence, can be threatening.
  • Let your dog approach you rather than moving toward your dog. This will be less menacing and will allow your dog to greet you at its own pace.
  • Punishment is not recommended because it only aggravates the problem. Punishment makes your dog more anxious and increases its tendency to urinate submissively. Further, because the urinary (and anal) sphincters may relax during times of stress, the pet may naturally void more out of fear. Your dog may learn to fear and avoid you or to anticipate punishment at social encounters.

Source: "Canine and Feline Behavior Problems"

The Importance of Daily Walks

In addition to basic needs such as food and shelter, a dog needs social interaction, positive attention from its owner, exercise and mental stimulation. Many of these needs can be met by taking the dog for a walk. Ideally, every dog should be walked on a leash for a minimum of 20 minutes, preferably after each meal.


  • Most cities and counties have some form of leash law. When leashed, a dog is safe from traffic and unable to follow his instincts to chase children, investigate garbage cans or dig up landscaping.
  • Remember to get your pet licensed in accordance with your city’s laws.
  • It is best to keep your dog on a leash, regardless of the leash laws in your area. Keep leashes to six feet or less on public sidewalks.
  • Do not use retractable leashes in areas frequented by joggers, skaters or cyclists. The thin line blends into the background and all too often athlete and dog collide.
  • Pick up feces using a plastic bag and knot the top to control odor and flies before deposing of it in a waste receptacle. Train your dog to urinate in gutters or on nonliving vertical surfaces, such as fire hydrants. Avoid trees and flower beds.

Benefits of Walks

  • A walk is a chance for attention. Perhaps more than anything, pets simply want our company.
  • A walk allows you to practice obedience skills with your dog to increase the reliability of training. Reviewing the basic obedience commands increases the benefits of a walk because your dog is not simply ambling along, but is performing additional tasks.
  • A walk provides mental stimulation through territorial investigation. The dog can gather information about how its territory has changed since the last walk.
  • A walk has many physical benefits. Walking your dog is the best way to exercise a dog that may not move about much in your home or even in your yard. Aging pets must be kept as agile and fit as possible but may not be inclined to exercise without much encouragement. Even if your dog is active in your yard, it’s most active during a walk.
  • A walk is a chance for socialization with others. If you pass by another dog or person along the way, your dog has an opportunity to greet them. Dogs are social animals and it’s their nature to investigate unrecognized and recognized individuals. If a dog does not have an opportunity to socialize, it will not learn to interact appropriately with other dogs or people. Puppies should be encouraged from a young age to appropriately greet and interact with other dogs and people while on walks. However, it's always crucial to ask "May my dog say hello to you?" before letting your dog may any physical contact.
  • A walk can prevent destructive behavior.

Source: "Canine and Feline Behavior Problems," Stefanie Schwartz; ASPCA

Nail Trimming

For a dog that enjoys regular outdoor activity, nail trimming may not be needed. In many cases, walking on pavement maintains a dog’s nails at an acceptable length. However, there are steps to take to ensure nail trimming isn’t an unpleasant experience for your dog:

  • Before you ever attempt to trim its nails, begin by touching its legs, feet and toes, and associate this with an activity it enjoys. When it is resting, begin petting it, gently passing your hands over its back and legs. If this is well tolerated, you may wish to give it a small food treat. Do not try to do too much the first time.
  • Gradually manipulate your pet’s foot more each time. Eventually you should be able to slip your fingers in between each toe, gently squeezing each one to flex the nail, putting gentle pressure as you hold each foot and manipulate the leg. Do not attempt this when your pet is feeling agitated or playful.
  • Once your pet tolerates having its feet touched during quiet times, you may begin to incorporate this into elements of play time. Train your dog to assume a “down/stay” position when it retrieves a ball, for example, and “shake” its paw before continuing the game.
  • Make sure not to cut into the quick, or the living portion of the nail bed that contains sensitive nerves and blood vessels. That is a painful experience for the dog, and he’ll begin to associate the trimming with bad things. If you are unsure how to trim your dog’s toenails, ask your veterinarian or technician to show you how. The nail bed is seen as a pinkish triangle at the base of a nail; however it may not be obvious in dark-colored nails.
  • There is more variety between the shape of toe nails in dogs than in cats. Some pets’ nails grow in a more curved shape as compared with those growing more parallel to the ground. This may determine how short they may be trimmed. Even a skilled professional can misjudge the depth to which a nail may be trimmed.
  • It is better to cut less than to cut more than necessary. Trim off small sections at a time and stop well short of the sensitive portion of the nail. Cut your pet’s nails frequently, a little at a time, rather than occasionally when toe nails are uncomfortable to both your pet and to you.

Source: "Canine and Feline Behavior Problems," Stefanie Schwartz

Stopping Predatory Behavior

Dogs were originally domesticated to take advantage of their hunting ability. The hunting instinct is not uniform among individuals of any given breed; rather, it is usually seen as a range of behavioral tendencies. The most obvious disadvantage of predatory behavior by domestic dogs is the unnecessary injury or death of other animals, including wildlife and other pets.

It also can take on a more sinister form when directed against family members, particularly if these are children and infants. Predatory instincts are most likely to be redirected toward children when an infant begins to crawl and walk. Never leave a child unattended with even the most trusted pet during this critical time.

Several methods have been recommended to control predatory behavior in dogs. Of these, the only method that is effective incorporates two simple approaches:

1. Deny your dog the opportunity to hunt.

  • Prevent opportunities to roam unrestricted or unsupervised outdoors.
  • Construct a fence around your yard if hunting occurs beyond your property. Alternatively, place a pen within your yard, restricting access to prey on your property.
  • Consider attaching your dog’s collar to a long lead (anchored to the ground), as long as the dog is not left there during bad weather or for long periods without supervision.

2. Minimize your dog’s desire to roam and hunt by providing alternative activities.

  • Discourage wild and undisciplined behavior so that your dog is less likely to follow its primitive instincts.
  • Every dog should be walked on a leash at least twice a day.
  • Practice obedience skills daily. This reinforces appropriate and desirable behavior.
  • Set aside time each day to play with your pet, engaging in games that apply obedience skills such as retrieval of objects. More playful interaction of this kind also increases your dog’s intellectual and physical activity.

Source: "Canine and Feline Behavior Problems," Stefanie Schwartz

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